Updating sino indian principles of cooperative engagement by sanjaya baru

The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945) was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945.It followed the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95.

By 1939, after Chinese victories in Changsha and Guangxi, and with stretched lines of communications deep into the Chinese interior territories, the war had reached a stalemate.The Japanese were also unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, which continued to perform sabotage operations against the Japanese using guerrilla warfare tactics.On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the following day (December 8, 1941) the United States declared war on Japan.The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century.It accounted for the majority of civilian and military casualties in the Pacific War, with anywhere between 10 and 25 million Chinese civilians and over 4 million Chinese and Japanese military personnel dying from war-related violence, famine, and other causes.

The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy aimed at expanding its influence politically and militarily in order to secure access to raw material reserves and other economic resources in the area, particularly food and labour, and engage war with others in the policy context of aggressive modernized militarism in the Asia-Pacific, at the height of Imperial Rule Assistance Association's Hideki Tojo cabinet and with the order from Emperor Shōwa.Before 1937, China and Japan fought in small, localized engagements, so-called "incidents".In 1931, the Japanese invasion of Manchuria by Japan's Kwantung Army followed the Mukden Incident.The last of these incidents was the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, which marked the beginning of total war between the two countries.Initially the Japanese scored major victories, such as the Battle of Shanghai, and by the end of 1937 captured the Chinese capital of Nanking.After failing to stop the Japanese in Wuhan, the Chinese central government was relocated to Chongqing in the Chinese interior.