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The acid and intermediate rocks appear to represent hybrid mixtures of crust and mantle-derived magmas.

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Analysis of synonymous substitution rates (Ks) suggested that shared duplications originated before the divergence of these two species.

While major genome rearrangements affected the ancestral genome of both species, small paracentric inversions were found to be species specific.

We provide a thorough analysis of comparative genome evolution between barley and rice.

Two very different periods of magma emplacement in the crust of the Ossa-Morena zone (early and main events) in SW Iberia have been previously interpreted to record a Cambrian/Early Ordovician rifting event that is thought to have culminated in the opening of the Rheic Ocean during the Early Ordovician.

New stratigraphic, petrographic, geochemical and Sm–Nd isotope data from Cambrian volcanic rocks included in six key low-grade sections in both Portugal and Spain considerably improve our understanding of these events.

These data: (1) confirm the existence of two rift-related magmatic events in the Cambrian of the Ossa-Morena zone, (2) demonstrate that the early rift-related event was associated with migmatite and core-complex formation in the mid-upper crust and is represented by felsic peraluminous rocks, the parent magmas of which were derived mainly from crustal sources, and (3) show the main rift-related event to be represented by a bimodal association of felsic and mafic rocks with minor amounts of intermediate rocks.

Some of the mafic rocks show N-MORB affinity, whereas others have OIB or E-MORB affinities, suggesting different heterogeneous mantle sources (depleted and enriched, asthenospheric and lithospheric, plume-like and non-plume-like).

We investigated footprints of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in barley that shaped the cereal ancestor genome by analyzing shared synteny with rice using a ~2000 gene-based barley genetic map and the rice genome reference sequence.

Based on a recent annotation of the rice genome, we reviewed the WGD in rice and identified 24 pairs of duplicated genomic segments involving 70% of the rice genome.

Using 968 putative orthologous gene pairs, synteny covered 89% of the barley genetic map and 63% of the rice genome.

We found strong evidence for seven shared segmental genome duplications, corresponding to more than 50% of the segmental genome duplications previously determined in rice.