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Application of this method of age determination is limited to those periods of pottery and fired clay availability ( from about 6000 BC to the present). 50 Denison Drive Guilford, CT 06437 (203) 453-3299 University of Hawai'i Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology 2525 Correa Road Honolulu, HI 96822 (808) 956-8761 FAX (808) 956-3188 University of Washington Luminescence Laboratory, DH-05 Seattle, WA 98195 (206) 543-1506 FAX (206) 543-3285 American Council of Independent Laboratories 1629 K Street, NW Washington, DC 20006 (202) 887-5872 FAX (202)887-0021 E-mail: [email protected] of independent testing, research and inspection laboratories. 101 West Edison Avenue, Suite 250 Appleton, WI 54915 (920) 749-3040 FAX (920) 749-3046 Testing and analysis for the pulp, paper, and allied industries. FAO/IAEA International Symposium on Managing Soils for Food Security and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, Vienna, Austria 23-27 July 2012 Hua, Quan. Radiocarbon: A chronological tool for the recent past.

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Radiocarbon dating: radioactive carbon decays to nitrogen with a half-life of 5730 years.In dead material, the decayed 14C is not replaced and its concentration in the object decreases slowly.To obtain a truly absolute chronology, corrections must be made, provided by measurements on samples of know age.The most suitable types of sample for radiocarbon dating are charcoal and well-preserved wood, although leather, cloth, paper, peat, shell and bone can also be used.Because of the somewhat short half-life of 14C, radiocarbon dating is not applicable to samples with ages greater than about 50,000 years, because the remaining concentration would be too small for accurate measurement.

Thermoluminescence dating: this method is associated with the effect of the high energy radiation emitted as a result of the decay or radioactive impurities.

Because of the half-lives of 238U, 232nd, and 40K are very long, their concentrations in the object, and hence the radiation dose they provide per year, have remained fairly constant. 74th Court Miami, FL 33155 (305) 667-5167 FAX (305) 663-0964 Biocams International, Inc 13018 SW 120 Street Miami, FL 33186 (305) 663-0886 FAX (305) 631-3434 Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry PO Box 808, L-397 Livermore, CA 94550 (510) 423-1414 FAX (510) 4223-7884 Columbia University Geochemistry Department Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Palisades, NY 10964 (914) 365-8505 FAX (914) 365-8155 Desert Research Institute Water Resources Center Radiocarbon Laboratory PO Box 19040 Las Vegas, NV 89132-0040 (702) 895-0416 FAX (702) 895-0427 Geochron Laboratories A division of Krueger Enterprises, Inc.

The most suitable type of sample for thermoluminescence dating is pottery, though the date gotten will be for the last time the object was fired. 711 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 876-3691 FAX (617) 661-0148 Illinois State Geological Survey Isotope Geochemistry Laboratory Geochemistry Section 615 East Peabody Drive Urbana, IL 61820 (217) 333-9083 FAX (217) 244-7004 Los Angeles County Museum of Art 5905 Wilshire Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90036 (213) 857-6161 FAX (213) 931-7347 Purdue University Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory 1396 Physics Building West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (317) 494-6516 FAX (317) 494-0706 Teledyne Isotopes 50 Van Buren Avenue Westwood, NJ 07675 (201) 664-7070 FAX (201) 664-5586 Texas A&M University Department of Oceanography College Station, TX 77843 (409) 845-3651 United States Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Road Menlo Park, CA 94025 (415) 329-4685 FAX (415) 329-4684 United States Geological Survey National Center, 971 Reston, VA 22092 (703) 648-5350 FAX (703) 648-5310 United States Geological Survey, WRD Box 25046, Mail Stop 421 Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 (303) 236-5178 FAX (303) 236-5047 University of Arizona Geosciences Department Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry Tuscon, AZ 85721 (520) 621-8888 FAX (520) 621-2672 University of Arizona NSF-Arizona AMS Laboratory PAS Building 81 Tuscon, AZ 85721 (520) 621-6810 FAX (520) 621-9619 University of California Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics Archaeology Department Los Angeles, CA 90024 (310) 825-4169 FAX (310) 206-3051 University of California Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics Department of Anthropology Riverside, CA 92512 (909) 787-5521 FAX (909) 787-5409 University of California, Irvine Department of Earth Science Radiocarbon Laboratory PSRF 207 Irvine, CA 92717 (909) 725-2116 FAX (909) 725-3256 University of Georgia Center for Applied Isotope Studies 120 Riverbend Road Athens, GA 30602-4702 (706) 542-1395 FAX (706) 542-6106 University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Miami, FL 33149 (305) 361-4100 FAX (305) 361-4112 University of Rochester Nuclear Structure Research Laboratory Rochester, NY 14627 (716) 275-4944 FAX (716) 275-8527 University of Texas at Austin J. Pickle Research Campus Radiocarbon Laboratory Mail Code 77600 Austin, TX 78712 (512) 471-6600 FAX (612) 471-5973 University of Washington Department of Geological Sciences Quaternary Isotope Laboratory AJ-20 Seattle, WA 98195 (206) 685-1735 FAX (206) 543-3836 University of Wisconsin - Madison Center for Climatic Research 1225 West Dayton Street Madison, WI 53706 (608) 262-7328 FAX (608) 262-5964 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Mc Lean Laboratory National Ocean Sciences AMS Facility Woods Hole, MA 002543 (508) 457-2000x2585 FAX (508) 457-2183 Daybreak Nuclear & Medical Systems Inc. Suess effect on biomarkers used to determine sediment provenance from land-use changes.

Luminescence dating (including thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence) is a type of dating methodology that measures the amount of light emitted from energy stored in certain rock types and derived soils to obtain an absolute date for a specific event that occurred in the past.

The method is a direct dating technique, meaning that the amount of energy emitted is a direct result of the event being measured.

Better still, unlike radiocarbon dating, the effect luminescence dating measures increases with time.