Islamic Bengal was a melting pot, a regional power and a key player in medieval world trade.
It forms the largest and eastern portion the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal.Located at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, the country is bordered by India and Myanmar and is separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the narrow Siliguri Corridor.With a population of 166.2 million, it is the world's eighth-most populous country, the fifth-most populous in Asia and the third-most populous Muslim-majority country.The capital Dhaka and the port city of Chittagong are the most prominent urban centers.The predominant ethnic group are Bengalis, with a politically-dominant Bengali Muslim majority, followed by Bengali Hindus, Chakmas, Bengali Christians, Marmas, Tanchangyas, Bisnupriya Manipuris, Bengali Buddhists, Garos, Santhals, Biharis, Oraons, Tripuris, Mundas, Rakhines, Rohingyas, Ismailis and Bahais.
Bengal was absorbed into the Muslim world and ruled by sultans for four centuries, including under the Delhi Sultanate and the Bengal Sultanate.
This was followed by the administration of the Mughal Empire.
The official Bengali language is the seventh-most spoken language in the world, which Bangladesh shares with the neighboring Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam (Barak Valley).
Three of Asia's largest rivers, the Ganges (locally known as the Padma), the Brahmaputra (locally known as the Jamuna) and the Meghna, flow through Bangladesh and form the fertile Bengal delta—the largest delta in the world.
With rich biodiversity, Bangladesh is home to 700 rivers, most of the world's largest mangrove forest; rainforested and tea-growing highlands; a 600 km (370 mi) coastline with the world's longest beach; and various islands, including a coral reef.
Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, ranking alongside South Korea and Monaco.